accessibility ACCESSIBILITY

Sight:

The ability to look at an object and have it in focus

Vision:

“Vision” is something all-embracing. When skills such as converging, fixation and teaming integrate efficiently with the brain's visual cortex so that you understand what you see, the result is “Vision”. When we use our vision, the brain organizes the information SEEN and gives it meaning often by relating it to our other senses and past experiences. Vision is the ability to understand what is seen. Vision develops in a sequence of predictable stages: therefore it is trainable.

 


 

 

Recommendation: 

20-40 sessions: 50 minutes of in office practice, 5 nights of homework for 20 minutes
each night


Many different skills are involved in a child’s learning to cope with living in the
complicated worlds of family and school. Young children must learn to understand
what’s going on around them in order to understand where they fit into things.
Clear sight is not enough.


Understanding perception is the key and vision plays a major part in understanding. Children
must first learn to read so that, later, they can read to learn. Similarly, the
visual skills listed below are needed if youngsters are to succeed in school and
in life.


Most vision imbalances are triggered by stress: often by the visual demands of
schoolwork or computer use.


  1. Clearness of vision (Acuity)

    1. This is the ability to see clearly at near and far distance. Clarity at distance is
      about the only skill that the usual eye chart examination tests. The Snellen
      chart tells you that you have 20/20 acuity or that you don’t. Generally,
      children who have poor distance acuity are nearsighted. The farsighted child
      tends to have more difficulty reading but often does better at sports than the
      nearsighted youngster.

  2. Eye movement skills (Fixation Ability)

    1. This is the ability to point the eyes actually at an object and keep the eyes on
      target whether the object is moving or stationary. Without these skills, you
      can't clearly follow a moving object, such as a ball in flight. You can't move
      your eyes smoothly across a line of text on a page. A child can’t shift the eyes
      from a close object to a far one, such as from a notebook to a chalkboard in
      class.

  3. Eye focusing skills (Accommodation)

    1. This is the ability to adjust the focus of your eyes as the distance from the object
      varies. Copying from the chalkboard, for instance, requires constant shifting of
      focus from far to near and back again. More children are capable of a large
      amount of change of focus but fine, accurate control breaks down more easily
      under stress. Excellent eye focusing is a skill common in superior athletes

    2. Watch your spouse read something far away and notice their eye movements: very
      minimum. Now have your spouse read something up close: you will notice a lot
      more eye movement that must be well controlled.

  4. Eye aiming skills (Converging and Diverging)

    1. This is the ability to turn the eyes inward or outward in looking from objects close
      up to objects far away and back again. These skills must be closely coordinated
      with eye focusing skills. Inadequacies in these areas seriously hamper reading
      ability and athletic performance. Fortunately, these are skills that normally
      can be enhanced through optometric vision care.

  5. Eye teaming skills (Binocular Fusion)

    1. This is the ability to coordinate and align the eyes precisely so that the brain can
      fuse the input it receives from each eye. Even a slight misalignment can cause
      double vision, which in turn, the brain may try to eliminate by suppressing the
      use of one eye. In one way or another, the brain will react in a disturbed and
      defensive manner to confusing signals from the eyes.

  6. Eye-hand coordination

    1. This is the ability of the vision system (eye-brain connection) to coordinate the
      information received through the eyes in order to monitor and direct the hands.
      This skill is important for learning to write (poor handwriting is often related
      to poor hand-eye coordination). It is essential to good performance in most
      sports.

  7. Visual form perception

    1. This is the ability to organize images on the printed page into letters and/or words.
      It is one of the most important skills used in learning to read and is developed
      through both experience and practice. It can be taught or improved.
       


WHAT IS VISION THERAPY?

Vision therapy sets the stage for you to learn or improve visual abilities. This allows
you to quickly take in, use, and understand more information over a larger area
of space. It also allows you to use vision to learn more and succeed better at
work, school, or in athletics. Rather than exercises for the eyes, it involves
an
awareness of movement and control of movement.
The result leads to smooth and automatic movement of eyes coordinated with
movement.


II.
What does Vision Therapy do?

Optometric
vision therapy works on the development of visual skills, among which are the
following:

  1. The ability to follow a moving object smoothly, accurately
    and effortlessly with both eyes and at the same time think, talk, read or listen
    without losing alignment of eyes. This pursuit ability is used to follow a ball
    or a person, to guide a pencil while writing, to read numbers on moving railroad
    box cars, etc.

  2. The ability to fix the eyes on a series of stationary objects quickly and accurately,
    with both eyes, and at the same time know what each object is; a skill used to
    read words from left to right, add columns of numbers, read maps,
    etc.

  3. The ability to change focus quickly, without blur,
    from far to near and from near to far, over and over, effortlessly and at the
    same time look for meaning and obtain understanding from the symbols or objects
    seen. This ability is used to copy from the chalkboard, to watch the road ahead
    and check the speedometer, to read a book and watch TV across the room,
    etc.

  4. The ability to team two eyes together. This skill should work
    so well that no interference exists between the two eyes that can result in
    having to suppress or mentally block information from one eye or the other. This
    shutting off of information to one eye lowers understanding and speed, increases
    fatigue and distractibility, and shortens attention span. Proper teaming permits
    efficient vision to emerge and learning to occur.

  5. The ability to see over a large area (in the periphery)
    while pointing the eyes straight ahead. For safety, self-confidence and to read
    rapidly, a person needs to see "the big picture," to know easily where they are
    on a page while reading and to take in large amounts of information, i.e., a
    large number of words per look.

  6. The ability to see and know (recognize) in a short look. Efficient vision is
    dependent on the ability to see rapidly, to see and know an object, people or
    words in a very small fraction of a second. The less time required to see, the
    faster the reading and thinking.

  7. The ability to see in depth. A child should be able
    to throw a beanbag into a hat 10 feet away, to judge the visual distance and
    control the arm movements needed. An adult needs to see and judge how far it is
    to the curb, make accurate visual decisions about the speed and distances of
    other cars to be safe.

 

Behavioral Signs of Visual Problems


Eye Movement Abilities (Ocular Motility)

  • Loses place frequently during reading

  • Needs finger or marker to keep place

  • Short Attention Span, Reading or copying


Eye Teaming Ability (Binocularity)

  • Squints, closes or covers one eye

  • Tilts head while working at desk

  • Complains of seeing double (diplopia)


Eye-Hand Coordination Abilities

  • Repeatedly confuses left-right directions

  • Poorly spaced words; can’t stay on ruled lines

  • Uses hand as “spacer” to control spacing and alignment on page


Visual Form Perception (Visual Comparison and Imagery, Visualization)

  • Spelling Problems

  • Hard to remember what is read

  • Reversal of words, letters or numbers

  • Fails to recognize same word in next sentence

  • Repeatedly confuses words with similar beginnings and endings

  • Fails to visualize what is read silently or aloud

  • Whispers to self for reinforcement while reading silently


Refractive State  (focusing problems)

  • Quickly loses interest in reading

  • Print Blurs after reading a short time

  • Headaches in forehead and temples

  • Words move or “swim” on the page

  • Blinks excessively at desk or reading

  • Book held too close to eyes, face too close to desk

  • Makes errors in copying from chalkboard to paper

  • Makes errors in copying from page to paper

  • Squints to see chalkboard, or requests to move closer

  • Rubs eyes during or after short periods of visual activity

  • Blinks to clear chalkboard after reading or writing


Secondary Symptoms

  • Smart in everything but school

  • Short attention span

Fatigue, frustration, stress