The ability to look at an object and have it in focus
“Vision” is something all-embracing. When skills such as converging, fixation and teaming integrate efficiently with the brain's visual cortex so that you understand what you see, the result is “Vision”. When we use our vision, the brain organizes the information SEEN and gives it meaning often by relating it to our other senses and past experiences. Vision is the ability to understand what is seen. Vision develops in a sequence of predictable stages: therefore it is trainable.
20-40 sessions: 50 minutes of in office practice, 5 nights of homework for 20 minutes
Many different skills are involved in a child’s learning to cope with living in the
complicated worlds of family and school. Young children must learn to understand
what’s going on around them in order to understand where they fit into things.
Clear sight is not enough.
Understanding perception is the key and vision plays a major part in understanding. Children
must first learn to read so that, later, they can read to learn. Similarly, the
visual skills listed below are needed if youngsters are to succeed in school and
Most vision imbalances are triggered by stress: often by the visual demands of
schoolwork or computer use.
Clearness of vision (Acuity)
This is the ability to see clearly at near and far distance. Clarity at distance is
about the only skill that the usual eye chart examination tests. The Snellen
chart tells you that you have 20/20 acuity or that you don’t. Generally,
children who have poor distance acuity are nearsighted. The farsighted child
tends to have more difficulty reading but often does better at sports than the
Eye movement skills (Fixation Ability)
This is the ability to point the eyes actually at an object and keep the eyes on
target whether the object is moving or stationary. Without these skills, you
can't clearly follow a moving object, such as a ball in flight. You can't move
your eyes smoothly across a line of text on a page. A child can’t shift the eyes
from a close object to a far one, such as from a notebook to a chalkboard in
Eye focusing skills (Accommodation)
This is the ability to adjust the focus of your eyes as the distance from the object
varies. Copying from the chalkboard, for instance, requires constant shifting of
focus from far to near and back again. More children are capable of a large
amount of change of focus but fine, accurate control breaks down more easily
under stress. Excellent eye focusing is a skill common in superior athletes
Watch your spouse read something far away and notice their eye movements: very
minimum. Now have your spouse read something up close: you will notice a lot
more eye movement that must be well controlled.
Eye aiming skills (Converging and Diverging)
This is the ability to turn the eyes inward or outward in looking from objects close
up to objects far away and back again. These skills must be closely coordinated
with eye focusing skills. Inadequacies in these areas seriously hamper reading
ability and athletic performance. Fortunately, these are skills that normally
can be enhanced through optometric vision care.
Eye teaming skills (Binocular Fusion)
This is the ability to coordinate and align the eyes precisely so that the brain can
fuse the input it receives from each eye. Even a slight misalignment can cause
double vision, which in turn, the brain may try to eliminate by suppressing the
use of one eye. In one way or another, the brain will react in a disturbed and
defensive manner to confusing signals from the eyes.
This is the ability of the vision system (eye-brain connection) to coordinate the
information received through the eyes in order to monitor and direct the hands.
This skill is important for learning to write (poor handwriting is often related
to poor hand-eye coordination). It is essential to good performance in most
Visual form perception
This is the ability to organize images on the printed page into letters and/or words.
It is one of the most important skills used in learning to read and is developed
through both experience and practice. It can be taught or improved.
WHAT IS VISION THERAPY?
Vision therapy sets the stage for you to learn or improve visual abilities. This allows
you to quickly take in, use, and understand more information over a larger area
of space. It also allows you to use vision to learn more and succeed better at
work, school, or in athletics. Rather than exercises for the eyes, it involves
an awareness of movement and control of movement.
The result leads to smooth and automatic movement of eyes coordinated with
What does Vision Therapy do?
vision therapy works on the development of visual skills, among which are the
The ability to follow a moving object smoothly, accurately
and effortlessly with both eyes and at the same time think, talk, read or listen
without losing alignment of eyes. This pursuit ability is used to follow a ball
or a person, to guide a pencil while writing, to read numbers on moving railroad
box cars, etc.
The ability to fix the eyes on a series of stationary objects quickly and accurately,
with both eyes, and at the same time know what each object is; a skill used to
read words from left to right, add columns of numbers, read maps,
The ability to change focus quickly, without blur,
from far to near and from near to far, over and over, effortlessly and at the
same time look for meaning and obtain understanding from the symbols or objects
seen. This ability is used to copy from the chalkboard, to watch the road ahead
and check the speedometer, to read a book and watch TV across the room,
The ability to team two eyes together. This skill should work
so well that no interference exists between the two eyes that can result in
having to suppress or mentally block information from one eye or the other. This
shutting off of information to one eye lowers understanding and speed, increases
fatigue and distractibility, and shortens attention span. Proper teaming permits
efficient vision to emerge and learning to occur.
The ability to see over a large area (in the periphery)
while pointing the eyes straight ahead. For safety, self-confidence and to read
rapidly, a person needs to see "the big picture," to know easily where they are
on a page while reading and to take in large amounts of information, i.e., a
large number of words per look.
The ability to see and know (recognize) in a short look. Efficient vision is
dependent on the ability to see rapidly, to see and know an object, people or
words in a very small fraction of a second. The less time required to see, the
faster the reading and thinking.
The ability to see in depth. A child should be able
to throw a beanbag into a hat 10 feet away, to judge the visual distance and
control the arm movements needed. An adult needs to see and judge how far it is
to the curb, make accurate visual decisions about the speed and distances of
other cars to be safe.
Behavioral Signs of Visual Problems
Eye Movement Abilities (Ocular Motility)
Loses place frequently during reading
Needs finger or marker to keep place
Short Attention Span, Reading or copying
Eye Teaming Ability (Binocularity)
Squints, closes or covers one eye
Tilts head while working at desk
Complains of seeing double (diplopia)
Eye-Hand Coordination Abilities
Repeatedly confuses left-right directions
Poorly spaced words; can’t stay on ruled lines
Uses hand as “spacer” to control spacing and alignment on page
Visual Form Perception (Visual Comparison and Imagery, Visualization)
Hard to remember what is read
Reversal of words, letters or numbers
Fails to recognize same word in next sentence
Repeatedly confuses words with similar beginnings and endings
Fails to visualize what is read silently or aloud
Whispers to self for reinforcement while reading silently
Refractive State (focusing problems)
Print Blurs after reading a short time
Headaches in forehead and temples
Words move or “swim” on the page
Blinks excessively at desk or reading
Book held too close to eyes, face too close to desk
Makes errors in copying from chalkboard to paper
Makes errors in copying from page to paper
Squints to see chalkboard, or requests to move closer
Rubs eyes during or after short periods of visual activity
Blinks to clear chalkboard after reading or writing
Fatigue, frustration, stress